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How China sees the world in the 21st century

Following the world publications on China as a whole, the following conclusions need to be drawn.

China is striving for a new world order in which there is no dominant ideology or state. Although China itself is fighting for hegemony in many parts of the world. So far - with modest success.


How China sees the world in the 21st century

At the last congress of the Chinese Communist Party in October 2017, President Xi Jinping announced that the country was entering a "new era" and that the People's Republic of China was "getting closer to the center of the world stage every day."

But still, how does China see the new world order, at the center of which it intends to stand?

The answer to this question is not so simple and unambiguous, according to political scientists. Political forces in Beijing give the impression that they do not know exactly what they want. They are experimenting with Deng Xiaoping's style. In the 1980s, he promoted economic reforms in China, following the motto: "Touching the stones, you will cross the river."

Indecision is also reflected in the multilevel and differentiated discussions of China's role in the world by the country's intellectuals.

The spectrum is wide, from the perception of the global status quo to the idea that China is destined to subjugate the world to its will. But no matter what discussions take place, the last word is always for the party.

However, according to political scientists, something is clear. China wants a world order based on three principles:

✔️ a multipolar world with different centers of power - for example, the United States, China, Europe, Russia and possibly India;
✔️ way of making decisions - ie without the state to impose its will on others;
✔️ and ideological pluralism, which allows different models of governance to be considered equally acceptable.

 Let's analyze these principles.

The first is a long-standing fact. We live in a multipolar world. As for the second - the so-called multilateral approach, in China since 2018 it is associated with the term first used by Deng Xiaoping: "Fatal Community of Peace." In a globalized world, our destinies are inevitably interconnected. This is not a concept yet. An addition is required, such as the requirement to strengthen international law or international institutions. Rather, China has no such intentions and is very similar to the United States. Both parties accept international law when it is in their interests and reject it if it contradicts them.

 China is fighting for its image

 China has long wanted to establish itself in the eyes of the world as an alternative to liberal democracies. The country is fighting for a new, better image. Confucius Institutes actively promote the Chinese language and culture. Chinese investors buy media in Africa and determine China's perception through social media or through influence on Chinese living abroad.

 The result achieved, however, is very modest. There are successes in Africa. The more economically an African country is linked to China, the more successful it is. However, in Germany and other industrialized countries, China's image has only deteriorated due to the rather tough diplomacy of recent months. Distrust of China in Europe and the United States is exacerbated by the internment and re-education of hundreds of thousands of Uighurs, as well as harsh measures against Hong Kong citizens.

 And the New Silk Road project, originally hailed as the world's largest infrastructure project, has meanwhile come under increasing criticism. Economically weaker countries are heavily dependent on China.

 Be at the forefront of Asia

It is believed that China claims a leading role on a global scale.

 "One who wants to be a leader must be able to make the common good available for free and have a certain missionary behavior in order to impose certain ideas on a global scale."

This is not the case in China. China does not want to replace the United States and even fears the possibility of taking on such tasks.


How China sees the world in the 21st century


 But even if China does not seek global hegemony, Beijing definitely wants to take the lead in Asia. Back in 2014, President Xi Jinping called for "Asian Asians."

 China's claims are most pronounced in the South China Sea - the People's Republic of China is trying to displace not only the United States but also neighboring countries. He also wants control of major sea routes. And, of course, on raw materials.



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